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Jane Jacobs

Jane Jacobs Part III: How Efficiency Destroys Cities

In The Economy of Cities, Jane Jacobs makes a comparison between Manchester and Birmingham England.  When the book was written in 1969, Birmingham was a rising star and competed with London as a world-class manufacturing center. Manchester was an economically stagnant place falling in influence. The difference, she wrote, was development. Development of new goods, innovations, R and D, and adding new work to old work.  Manchester was more efficient in pumping out widgets but concentrated on only one or two industries; Birmingham had an entrepreneurial culture and diversified manufacturing base which allowed for economic development over the course of decades. Less efficient, but in the long run, prosperous and sustainable. When the paths of these cities first began to diverge, Birmingham must have seemed more chaotic and “messy”. Less productive. A more organic city, but one that afforded opportunity to a broader range of people.

She goes on to site another example of the Roman Aqueducts, claiming that Rome’s utilitarian water needs were “amazingly neglected” except for the baths, gardens and homes of the wealthy. The aqueducts were conceived and funded by the wealthy, for the wealthy.

“Solutions to most of the practical problems of cities begin humbly. When humble people, doing lowly work, are not also solving problems, nobody is apt to solve them.” Economy of Cities, Pg 105

The most efficient solution to Rome’s water needs – massive aqueducts carrying millions of gallons of water, was mostly ineffective in getting water to people’s homes. Empowering people and giving them the tools to solve their own problems fills in the gaps that are left when the most efficient solution is riddled with glaring omissions.

The concept of efficiency is taken even further, describing our late 20th century urban planning models:

“It is most efficient for large construction firms to produce monotonous multiples of identical buildings; it is most efficient for architects to design multiples of identical buildings. Superblocks are more efficient than smaller blocks because there are fewer crossings and traffic can flow more efficiently; where there are fewer streets, utilities can be distributed more efficiently and maintenance costs are less.” Economy of Cities, Pg 101

Jacobs spoke out against architectural homogenization and superblocks in her previous book, Death and Life. The quest for efficiency destroyed large parts of cities across the country. A local example:

"The cycle of the machine is now coming to an end. Man has learned much in the hard discipline and the shrewd, unflinching grasp of practical possibilities that the machine has provided in the last three centuries: but we can no more continue to live in the world of the machine than we could live successfully on the barren surface of the moon." - Lewis Mumford

US-40 in West Baltimore, also called the “Highway to Nowhere”, and deemed the “The Highway to Somewhere” in the West Baltimore MARC Station Master Plan. 20 blocks destroyed, 1,000 households displaced and numerous churches and historic buildings demolished for a 1.6 mile freeway, its connection to the beltway canceled due to community opposition and funding issues.    I converted the map to monochrome to show the huge spaces of underutilized land, the mess of on/off ramps abutting neighborhoods and the desolate superblocks east of MLK Jr. Blvd. If you look more closely you can see the cow paths where people cross multiple lanes of traffic and concrete barriers to walk between the two halves of Fremont Ave. :

During the design and construction of the Interstate system, the most efficient solutions to traffic usually disregarded how people traveled within their neighborhoods, and the neighborhoods themselves.  This is the Manchester of urban design – it does one thing very well (move cars), but as originally designed it is inflexible in its use and myopic in its scope. There are plans, however, to turn this highway into a community asset. Let’s hope we are far less efficient today.

7/21/10 Update: I would be remiss if I didn’t mention all the work BaltiMorphosis has done with their concepts for West Baltimore.  Their plans show the magnitude of destruction caused by this urban highway and the design possibilities which could someday revitalize an enormous area of the city.

Jane Jacobs Part II

1946 traffic jam on Mission, near 5th St (Photo: San Francisco History Center, San Francisco Public Library)

When I started this site a few weeks ago, one of the major decisions which had to be made was if this was going to be a local, eyes-on-the-ground nuts and bolts commentary on transportation in Baltimore, or a more theoretical discussion that would touch on the disciplines which make up urban planning. I’ve decided to take both routes and see how it goes.

The last book Jane Jacobs completed before she died was Dark Age Ahead.  It’s meandering, pessimistic, and lacks the Eureka moments of Death and Life.  It’s a rant against the evils (real and imagined) that she felt were crippling society.  One of the more memorable parts of the book is her diatribe against traffic engineers and traffic modeling. Her argument: Traffic isn’t constant. Close a road, and instead of an equal number of cars re-routed, total traffic volumes will be reduced instead. The tried and true theories of fluid dynamics cannot be applied to traffic models since cars are driven by people, and predicting human behavior is more complex than predicting how water flows down a water slide at Wally’s Water World of Fun.

This is similar to Anthony Downs’ Triple Convergence theory; expanding roadway capacity will eventually lead to more drivers using the improved roads, negating whatever capacity improvements have been built. This new traffic comes from:

  1. Drivers who formerly used alternative routes during peak hours switch to the improved expressway (spatial convergence)
  2. Drivers who formerly traveled just before or after the peak hours start traveling during those hours (time convergence)
  3. Some commuters who used to take public transportation during peak hours now switch to driving, since it has become faster (modal convergence). (Stuck in Traffic, 1992)

Two sides of a coin from two very different authors; Closing roads reduces traffic, widening roads increases traffic. The “solution” (road building/widening) creating the symptoms (traffic) which are used to further justify more road building. This never ending cycle has been going on for decades, especially on suburban arterials and commerical strips.

These sacrilegious ideas are being put to use in NYC.  The Madison Square Pedestrian Project, the Broadway Blvd Midtown Improvements, and the 34th St. Midtown Pedestrian Mall show that eliminating full traffic lanes on busy streets in order to create outdoor living rooms, cafe space and transit/bike lanes is not only technically possible, but has enormous quality of life benefits.  Baltimore has also removed a full lane of traffic on Pratt St. (one of the busiest streets in the city) with little impact on congestion and replaced it with a dedicated bike/bus lane for the Charm City Circulator.

While traffic modeling is a useful tool, we should keep an eye on the big picture.

Jane Jacobs Part I

“Traffic congestion is caused by vehicles, not by people in themselves.”
— Jane Jacobs (The Death and Life of Great American Cities)

This is my second week of doing almost all of my traveling by bus, light rail, or bike. I thought this would be a harder lifestyle change to adapt to, but I hardly ever think about the Prius I sold. This is also the date when my car payment was usually due. It’s like a weight off my shoulders not having to pay it.

I biked from Penn Station to Swann Park today. On paper, it seems like a hike, but I think it took about 15 minutes and wasn’t difficult at all.  Bicycling in traffic makes you hyper aware of your surroundings.   Not only of cars, but buildings, people – everything around you. You’re an active participant in the trip and each mile is more deliberate. Traveling at a slower rate of speed -  a speed urban areas are designed for. Reaching the destination seems like  an accomplishment, but maybe because this is still pretty new to me.

www.kilduffs.com

What also struck me today was the lack of street life on what should be active neighborhood blocks. People on the street are not only good for business, they’re good for the health of neighborhoods. The first book I read when I decided to study urban planning was The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Modern Library Series) by Jane Jacobs. A lot of her ideas seem like common sense, but they are concepts which have been forgotten by planners and engineers during the past 50 years. One of Jacobs’  fundamental concepts is “eyes on the street”"

“Police are not the primary keepers of the peace on city streets and sidewalks. It would take thousands upon thousands of police officers to supplant the network of self-policing citizens.”

Active streets not only make people feel safer, but actually make them safer.  As social ills and urban decay overtook some Baltimore neighborhoods, residents felt less safe going to the park, walking to the store, or just hanging out on the steps. This wide-spread abandonment of the street (which also coincided with an increase in vacant structures) created an even worse situation where criminals acted without witness, thereby perpetuating the cycle of neighborhood decline. This  Environmental design theories which tried to follow Jacobs’ concepts left out crucial elements – a mix of land uses and a focus on public spaces.

This is to say nothing of the fundamental cultural and political changes in the U.S. between 1920 and 1970 which overwhelming favored the automobile and its related infrastructure.

But Baltimore already has the density, street network, and mix of uses  to support better street life. There needs to be a coordinated effort to bring people back outside. And not in cars.  This means complete streets, well designed public spaces and parks, outdoor seating, and aggressive programming for under-utilized or new spaces. This is especially important for Swann Park which just re-opened after a 2 year environmental remediation; there should be positive buzz about this place. Not only for the obvious reasons, but Swann Park will also be a lot of people’s introduction to the Middle Branch.

Kevin Lynch, a contemporary of Jacobs, also has some theories on street life I’ll discuss in a future post.